A group of diseases in which malignant cells grow out of control. These cells have tendency of spreading to other parts of the body.
Carcinoma in situ
The earliest stage of cancer where the cancer is still confined to the tissue in which it started.
Basal cell carcinoma
The most common type of skin cancer.
A cancer originating in the lungs or airways.
A cancer of the uterine cervix (the neck of the uterus).
A cancer of the lining of the uterus.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer arising from the skin or the surfaces of other structures, such as the mouth, cervix, or lungs.
A common fungal infection.
A substance that causes cancer.
An enlargement of the heart
CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen)
A blood tumor marker. Used widely to follow up colorectal carcinoma and other type of cancers.
The inflammation of soft tissue or skin (epithelial layer).
Central venous catheter
A special intravenous tubing that is surgically placed into a large vein near the heart and exits from the chest or abdomen. The catheter allows medications, fluids, or blood products to be given and blood samples to be taken.
Lymph nodes in the neck. There are five levels of these lymph nodes, level I is upper in the neck and level V is down in the super clavicular area.
The treatment of cancer with drugs. Adjuvant chemotherapy
Chemotherapy given to kill any remaining cancer cells, usually after all detectable tumor is removed by surgery or radiation.
Persisting over a long period of time (usually 6 months).
A study conducted using patients, usually to evaluate a new treatment.
A procedure to look at the colon or large bowel through a lighted, flexible tube.
Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
A compound used to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more cells.
A surgical procedure by which a connection is created between the colon and the skin of the abdomen to allow stool to be emptied into a collection bag.
Examination of the vagina and cervix with an instrument called a colposcope.
Congestive heart failure
A buildup of fluid in the lungs or extremities, or both (especially the legs). This occurs if the heart cannot pump the blood adequately.
A blood test involving normal metabolic waste in the body to indicate kidney function.
Cryosurgery or Cryoprostatectomy
Freezing of the prostate transperineally through the use of liquid nitrogen probes guided by transrectal ultrasound of the prostate. This procedure is still investigational.
CT scan (CAT scan)
An X-ray procedure that uses a computer to produce a detailed picture or cross section of the body.
An accumulation of fluid or semisolid material within a sac.
An inflammation of the bladder.
An examination of the urethra and urinary bladder with a cystoscope. A cystoscope is an instrument having a narrow tube with light at one end of an opening so the physician can observe what the light reveals.
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
A procedure in which a physician inserts a finger in the rectum of a patient to examine the area and the prostate for signs of mass or enlargement.
A nucleic acid found in cell nucleus that is the carrier of gene.
A health care professional who plans and calculates the proper radiation dose for treatment.
A controlled experiment in which neither the patient nor the physician knows whether the patient is getting one or another drug or dose.
A mechanism by which one drug may interact with the effect(s) of another drug.
The result of cells' ability to resist the effects of a specific drug.
Difficulty in swallowing.
Shortness of breath.
Difficult or painful urination.
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