A group of diseases in which malignant cells grow out of control. These cells have tendency of spreading to other parts of the body.
Carcinoma in situ
The earliest stage of cancer where the cancer is still confined to the tissue in which it started.
Basal cell carcinoma
The most common type of skin cancer.
Bronchogenic carcinoma
A cancer originating in the lungs or airways.
Cervical carcinoma
A cancer of the uterine cervix (the neck of the uterus).
Endometrial carcinoma
A cancer of the lining of the uterus.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer arising from the skin or the surfaces of other structures, such as the mouth, cervix, or lungs.


A common fungal infection.


A substance that causes cancer.


An enlargement of the heart

CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen)

A blood tumor marker. Used widely to follow up colorectal carcinoma and other type of cancers.


The inflammation of soft tissue or skin (epithelial layer).

Central venous catheter

A special intravenous tubing that is surgically placed into a large vein near the heart and exits from the chest or abdomen. The catheter allows medications, fluids, or blood products to be given and blood samples to be taken.

Cervical nodes

Lymph nodes in the neck. There are five levels of these lymph nodes, level I is upper in the neck and level V is down in the super clavicular area.


The treatment of cancer with drugs. Adjuvant chemotherapy
Chemotherapy given to kill any remaining cancer cells, usually after all detectable tumor is removed by surgery or radiation.


Persisting over a long period of time (usually 6 months).

Clinical trial

A study conducted using patients, usually to evaluate a new treatment.


A procedure to look at the colon or large bowel through a lighted, flexible tube.

Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)

A compound used to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more cells.


A surgical procedure by which a connection is created between the colon and the skin of the abdomen to allow stool to be emptied into a collection bag.


Examination of the vagina and cervix with an instrument called a colposcope.

Congestive heart failure

A buildup of fluid in the lungs or extremities, or both (especially the legs). This occurs if the heart cannot pump the blood adequately.


A blood test involving normal metabolic waste in the body to indicate kidney function.

Cryosurgery or Cryoprostatectomy

Freezing of the prostate transperineally through the use of liquid nitrogen probes guided by transrectal ultrasound of the prostate. This procedure is still investigational.

CT scan (CAT scan)

An X-ray procedure that uses a computer to produce a detailed picture or cross section of the body.


An accumulation of fluid or semisolid material within a sac.


An inflammation of the bladder.

Cystoscopic examination

An examination of the urethra and urinary bladder with a cystoscope. A cystoscope is an instrument having a narrow tube with light at one end of an opening so the physician can observe what the light reveals.


Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

A procedure in which a physician inserts a finger in the rectum of a patient to examine the area and the prostate for signs of mass or enlargement.


A nucleic acid found in cell nucleus that is the carrier of gene.


A health care professional who plans and calculates the proper radiation dose for treatment.

Double-blind study

A controlled experiment in which neither the patient nor the physician knows whether the patient is getting one or another drug or dose.

Drug interaction

A mechanism by which one drug may interact with the effect(s) of another drug.

Drug resistance

The result of cells' ability to resist the effects of a specific drug.


Difficulty in swallowing.


Shortness of breath.


Difficult or painful urination.

News & Events

  $1.45 million improvement project to enhance comfort and convenience for birthing families...


Not to be missed...  

Enhanced Creative Coping:
A new mom's group
Medford Family  Network
Monday, April 23-June 18

VNA and Hospice
Comedy Show FUNdraiser!
Giggles Comedy Club, Saugus, MA
Wednesday, April 25

Taste of Spring
Subaru of Wakefield
Thursday, May 10
10th Annual Christine
Cameron Symposium

MHA Conference Center
Burlington, MA
Friday, May 18

Melrose-Wakefield Hospital 
Golf Invitational

Kernwood Country Club, Salem, MA
Monday, June 25


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